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1) specific heat 
    - stabilizes the temperature of plants (plants are 75-95% water)
    - stabilizes the temperature of the environment, esp. around large bodies of water

2) heat of fusion
    - used for low intensity heat production
    - if you freeze a 55 gal drum of water:
      55 gal x 8 lb/gal x 454 g/lb x 80 cal/g = 16 million calories or 45,000 BTU released

3) heat of vaporization
    - causes cooling of plants, animals and the environment
    - evaporative cooling system, or fan-and-pad cooling system
    - sprinkler irrigate greenhouse or nursery crops in mid afternoon

4) infrared (IR) radiation
    - a form of radiation easily converted to heat energy when absorbed, and vice versa
    - infrared heaters
    - radiational cooling
    - frost protection with fog, smoke and overhead coverings

5) change of state
    - constant temperature when two phases of water are present
    - frost protection with overhead irrigation
    - pressure cooking