page 39
TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND SURVIVAL

 

Cardinal Temperature  - the temperature range in which plants grow and survive.
 
 

MINIMUM CARDINAL TEMPERATURE
a) growth: 40-50 oF (5-6 oC) for most species

b) survival

    1) tender or chilling sensitive: 32 to 45 oF (0 to 7 oC)

    2) semi-hardy plants: 15 to 29 oF (-9 to -2 oC)

    3) hardy plants: less than 0 oF (-18 oC)
 
 
 

OPTIMUM TEMPERATURE
a) cool-season plants: grow best at 65-75 oF (18-24 oC)

    1) in southern U.S.: grow as fall-winter crops.

    2) in northern U.S.: grow in late spring, summer, early fall

b) warm season plants: grow best at 78-90 oF (24-32 oC)

    1) in southern U.S.: grow in late spring and summer, early fall

    2) in northern U.S.: grow in summer, but for some warm season crops the growing season
        may be too short to get good yield.
 
 
 

MAXIMUM CARDINAL TEMPERATURE
a) growth: 90-96 oF (32-36 oC), most species

b) survival: 130 oF (54 oC), most species.