page 81
SEXUAL Vs. ASEXUAL PROPAGATION
SEXUAL OR SEED PROPAGATION 
Advantages:
1) produces large numbers in a short period of time 
2) can handle large numbers easily 
3) produces hybrids 

Disadvantages:
1) some plants produce no viable seeds 
2) some seeds are very difficult or slow to germinate 
3) causes genetic variability (e.g. due to production of hybrids) 
 

ASEXUAL OR VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION
totipotency - the concept that every cell in a plant has the inherent genetic ability to
                     reproduce the entire plant. 

Advantages:
1) All off-spring are true-to-type (identical to the parent) and produce a clone
    clone - a group of plants, cultivar or variety derived from the same parent plant by asexual
                (vegetative) propagation. 
2) for plants that are hard or impossible to propagate from seeds 
3) decrease time to flowering (esp. grafting & budding); by-passes juvenile phase 

Disadvantages:
1) can only propagate a few from each parent (except tissue culture). 
2) requires a lot of labor 

Tissue Culture
An asexual propagation technique where small pieces of excised tissue or individual cells are placed in sterile in vitro culture containing  all the nutrients, carbohydrates and hormones needed for growth.  The tissue grows rapidly and can be induced to produce large numbers of new plants.  Hormones are used to cause the tissue to grow into callus masses, roots or shoots.  Sometimes called micropropagation