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SEXUAL (SEED) PROPAGATION
TERMINOLOGY
pollination - deposition of pollen on the stigma of the pistil. 

ploidy - the number of sets of chromosomes present in the nucleus of the cell.

haploid     = 1N = 1 of each chromosome
diploid      = 2N = 2 of each chromosome
triploid     = 3N = 3 of each chromosome
tetraploid = 4N = 4 of each chromosome

Normally, the regular cells of the plant (called vegetative cells) are 2N, and the reproductive cells (called the gametes) are 1N.

gamete - a haploid (1N) reproductive cell.
               - the male gamete is the sperm cell with its 1N nucleus
               - the female gamete is the egg cell with its 1N nucleus.

fertilization - the union of one male gamete (1N sperm nucleus) and one female gamete (1N egg
                     nucleus) to produce a zygote (2N).

double fertilization - union of one  male gamete (1N) with one  female gamete (1N) to produce a
                              zygote (2N), plus the union of one male gamete (1N)  with two  polar nuclei (1N
                              each) to produce an endosperm (3N); occurs in higher plants only (angiosperms).

apomixis - development of an embryo without fertilization; hence, it is not true sexual propagation
                  even though it produces a seed.

parthenocarpy- development of fruit without seeds.

vivipary - germination of seeds inside the fruit while still attached to the parent plant. 
 

STAGES OF SEED GERMINATION

1st Stage
a) imbibition - initial absorption of water to hydrate seed

b) activation of metabolism - increased respiration and protein synthesis

2nd Stage
a) digestion of stored food- for example, starch to sugars in cotyledon or endosperm

b) translocation to embryo - sugars move to embryo for growth

3rd Stage
a) cell division and growth - development of seedling