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pruning- removal of plant parts, branches, shoot tips, buds, roots, etc.

dehorning - heavy drastic pruning of large limbs; should be avoided at all times;
                    also called pollarding.

thinning out - removal of branches back to their point of origin.

    Used to:
    1) decrease density of the canopy
    2) encourage other branches to grow and rejuvenate plant 
    3) redirect growth

heading back - removal of the terminal portions of a branch.

    Used to:
    1) increase density of the canopy
    2) encourage branching 

pinching - removal of the young, succulent tips of shoots.

hedging - removal of growth flushes on hedges or shrubs to shape canopy and induce
                dense growth.

disbudding - removal of excessive flower buds on flowering pot plants.

root pruning - pruning of roots, usually with a shovel, to prepare plants for transplanting.

1) Health and safety

2) Maintain desired form

3) Dwarfing

4) Invigoration

5) Increase productivity

6) Equalize root/shoot ratio

7) Develop strong branch framework